Thursday, September 10, 2009



Wednesday, September 9, 2009

An American Volunteer in China

An American Volunteer in China

To locals, 36-year-old David Deem seems a particularly tall and slim American. He stands at 1.93 meters (6 feet 4 inches), with blue eyes, curly blond hair, a beard, and an honest and bright smile. They call him "Ding Dawei."

Ding Dawei has been in Dongxiang Autonomous County in northwest China's Gansu Province since 2000, voluntarily helping with the elementary education of children. He came to work in China in 1994, and before coming to Dongxiang he was with the Northwest Minorities University for seven years as an English teacher.

"A Teacher Should Go Where He Is Needed Most"

When I first met Ding Dawei, I was surprised that he could speak in fluent Chinese.

"How about coming to my office and having a talk there?" he suggested as he showed me the way to his office-a 13-square-meter room functioning both as an office and a dormitory. The furniture is simple: one single bed, one table and two chairs. The red five-star flag on the wall is the only decoration in the room.

"I often ask myself the same question you reporters ask me," Ding Dawei said. "What did I come here for? I had been a teacher in the US, Japan, and later on in big Chinese cities like Zhuhai and Lanzhou. Everything was okay, and so why should I choose to come to Dongxiang? People often tend to move up into higher positions, but I, to the contrary, am moving gradually lower. But, as you know, Dongxiang is probably the weakest in China in terms of elementary education. I just came to offer my help. What do you think of this, worthy of praise or not?"

Ding Dawei was born in Cleveland, Ohio. His father is a senior executive in the largest tire factory in the US, and his mother was once a middle school teacher. When he was a third-year student in college, he went to China and studied for one year in Peking University. Like all foreign students in China, he traveled extensively and tasted the various delicious foods of different areas. He returned to the States a year later, and received his MA degree in classic literature at Asbury College, Kentucky. He found himself leaning towards a career as a teacher, and started to take notice of education in Asia-in particular, education in China. He came to the country in 1994.

A Sense of Responsibility

Ding's backpack holds an old folder, faded in color, which holds various items: his ID card, photocopies of his passport, reports on building schools with donations, official written replies from the education bureau, lists of donators, a bankbook, several account books, photos of schools, letters of thanks and many receipts waiting to be mailed to the donators... "This is my life here," he said.

For years, letters and donations have been continually sent via post to "Ding Dawei, Dongxiang, Gansu." He said, "I am probably the one who receives and sends the most letters in the county."

How to best use this money is often the question that racks his brain most. The money is used to build schools, purchase related articles for the schools, purchase gifts for teachers and students on Teachers' Day and Children's Day, respectfully, and pay for the teachers' training and exchange programs.

During each winter vacation, he takes local teachers to Guangdong Province for training and exchange, so as to help them gain more experience. Upon their return from the tour, he collects all the tickets and writes to donators, advising them why and how the money is best spent on bringing teachers to Guangdong Province, and the amount of money that had been used. The tickets and receipts are sent with the letters.

He wrote to the donators describing the expenditure of their contributions. The income and expenditure account was in triplicate: one for the education bureau; one for the school; and one copy for himself. Because of his assiduous recording keeping and donor communications, many contribute repeatedly, and one donator has forwarded funds more than ten times.

"I'm a Chinese Teacher"

Usually, Ding Dawei will travel by foot from one school to the other dealing with various problems, and he will often walk at least two hours a day.

To learn more about his life, we followed him on one of his journeys to deliver gifts to kids before Children's Day. The roads were not smooth, and the vehicle was packed with many things, so he insisted on going by foot. When he appeared at the gate of a school, we heard students loudly calling "Ding—Da—Wei." He was immediately encircled by children who seemed to come out of nowhere, and we were told that nearly all the children in Dongxiang County know him. Children are happy to see him, and he too feels happy and relaxed in being with them.

He delivered the gifts and the children returned to their classrooms under his instruction. This time he bought everyone a red baseball cap and a five-yuan electronic watch.

Looking at the pleasantly surprised children, he said, "You don't know how lovely children are here!" Then, he took out a globe and asked one child, "Do you know where China is?" As the child pointed out the position, he asked the child to tell him where Gansu Province is located, and the child did so correctly. Satisfied with the answers, he asked, "Where is Dongxiang?" The child replied that he did not know. Within the vast territory of China, Dongxiang is too small to be marked on any globe.

Children like playing games with the "giant," letting him hold them upside down in the air, or snatching the basketball that spins on his fingertips. And he likes to ask them questions. The assignment he gives himself is to appraise the skill level and abilities of each student, and determine in what areas they need to improve. In class, he asks questions in accordance with their different individual levels, not too difficult and not too easy. "It is difficult to handle it properly," he said.

Most of his time and energy is dedicated to providing the children with better education conditions. He continually visits all the schools in the county solving various problems, meeting the local children, who are truly fond of this blue-eyed teacher.

I remember that Ding Dawei was once invited to a popular live program on CCTV. On the screen, the audience watched as he took out the Chinese national flag (the one that now hangs on the wall of his room) from his backpack; and he told the host and the audience that he carried it with him at all times-just to remind himself that he was in China and he should speak more Chinese. "It also helps to bridge the gap between myself and those that come to my room," he said. "Every time I see the national flag, I will say to myself, 'You are a Chinese teacher now.'"

目录 [隐藏]


1994 年,年轻的丁大卫来到中国,在广东珠海恩溢私立小学担任英语教师。一年后,丁大卫萌生了到西部去看一看的想法。他选择了甘肃兰州,前往西北民族学院应聘当 大学教师。当时学校给大卫定的工资是每月1200元。老实的大卫跑去问别人,1200元在兰州是不是很高了?别人说,算很高了。于是,大卫主动找到学校, 要求把工资降到900元。学校不同意,大卫一再坚持,说:怎么也不能超过1000元。最后,学校给他每月950元。
丁大卫自己的家当很少,包括一 顶队帽、一本相册、一副家人合影、两套换洗的衣服(其中一件军装是大卫爸爸年轻时当兵穿过的,整整40年了)和一双未洗的普通运动鞋,还有一些生活必需品 和一面随身带着的五星红旗。大卫说,每当他看到中国国旗,他就会告诫自己:"你现在是一位中国教师,你要多为中国教书育人。"




丁 大卫说:“生活上的不便都是相对的。比如我所负责的8所小学都在乡下,而我现在在县里工作,有固定的办公室和住所,所以每次下乡都很麻烦,也不能每天都 去。乡下的条件还是很差的。而且东乡经常停水停电,但是我觉得既然东乡人能够在这里安居乐业,我也可以适应这里的生活。饮食方面也不是问题。我与家人联系 主要通过写信,美国那边大概两个星期可以收到。在别人看来,这种方式很麻烦、很原始,但这也是相对的。


丁 大卫的第一“怪”,是喜欢往贫穷地区钻。“人往高处走,水往低处流”,丁大卫却偏往低处走。他到中国的第一站是珠海,在珠海第一家私立小学恩溢国际学校任 英语教师,大小也是到了中国的特区。当丁大卫为这所学校招聘英语教师时发现,招聘到的5个人中有4个来自西北地区。他觉得,西北的人才都出来了,有谁去 呢?他的信条是,“当老师,就应该到最需要的地方去。”于是,丁大卫把自己的简历寄到西北的一些学校,最后他在兰州大学、西北师范大学等学校的邀请中,选 择了西北民院,理由是:“这里的学生大都要回到民族地区当老师,是最需要人的地方。”就这样,他从特区走进中国的西部兰州。到了兰州,他又开始研究哪个地 区最贫穷、教育最落后。几经考察,他选中了东乡县。从2000年开始,他为甘肃东乡族自治县做起了基础教育义务助学工作。这还“不过瘾”,2002年6 月,丁大卫和西北民院的合同到期,他决定辞去民院的工作,专职到东乡做事。

丁大卫的第二“怪”,是别人吵着要加待遇,他却硬要减工资。 1995年,丁大卫作为外籍教师应聘到西北民院,学校给他开出的工资是每月1200元。他打听了一圈后,知道这个工资比一般教师要高,于是主动找到学校, 要求把工资降到900元。学校不同意,坚持要付1000元,丁大卫觉得“四位数”还是太高,几番争执,最后定在了950元。

这 些年来,寄给“甘肃东乡丁大卫”的信件和捐款一直不断,总数已经超过了10万元。所有捐款的支出,他都会写信告诉捐助人。所有的收支账一律一式三份,给教 育局一份,学校一份,他自己留一份。别人问他, “又没有人要求你这样,不用这么麻烦吧。”他的解释是,“那怎么行,人家把钱交到你的手里,总要有交待。”他还为了学校1.5元一度的不合理电价去和电力 局理论;为一个语言功能有障碍的孩子联系聋哑学校和赞助人;为了春节期间带东乡的6位老师去广东恩溢学校培训的事向教育局汇报;还“义务”为双语教学项目 培训老师翻译资料。他甚至把家人都拖进来了。丁大卫的老父带了两个朋友去东乡看儿子,他让他们为建校做砖工,临走三位老人还把身上的余钱全部掏了出来。
曾 经有人对丁大卫说,二三十岁时做这样的事还可以,但是快要到40岁的人应该现实一些,过条件好的生活。丁大卫说:“我没想过要离开这里,我已经来中国十多 年了,也许我可以想到明年做什么,但是以后的事情谁也无法想像。我和我的妻子都很希望能够留在东乡。我有很健康的身体,有志同道合的妻子,有很多可爱的学 生,这些都支持着我继续在这里工作。我觉得每个人的生活都必须是有意义的,我现在做的是我喜欢的事情,这是一种自我满足。如果每个人都向往富裕的生活,而 没有人愿意付出,那么世界上绝大部分人都不会有过上优越生活的条件。”


Tuesday, September 8, 2009


最近,中国科学院丁仲礼院士课题组完成了研究论文《2050年大气CO2浓度控制:各国的排放配额计算》(该文近期在《中国科学》上中、英文发表),通过计算各国过去人均CO2累计排放量和今后排放余地,为即将开始的控制大气CO2浓度的国际谈判, 在一些核心问题上提供定量数据。

该研究以 1900年为时间起点,对各国过去(1900-2005年)人均累计排放量与应得排放配额,以及今后(2006-2050年)的排放配额做了逐年计算,并 根据1900-2050年的应得配额数、1900-2005年的实际排放量、2005年的排放水平、1996-2005年排放量平均增速四个客观指标,将 世界上所有大于30万人口的国家分为四大类:一为已形成排放赤字国家(美、加、澳、英、德、法等发达国家在此列,还有一些产油国和前苏联国家),二为排放 总量需降低国家(发展中国家为主,但日、韩、意等国在此列),三为排放增速需降低的国家(大多为发展中国家,中国、印尼等在此列。我国1999-2005 年平均增长率达8.81%,但我国可占全球2006-2050年总排放配额的30%以上,这是我们手中最大的牌),四为可保持目前排放增速的国家(均为发 展中国家,印度、巴基斯坦、巴西等在此列)。


1、发达 国家在1960年时,其人均累计排放量已经很高,如美国为234.48 tC(单位为吨碳), 英国为177.17 tC, 加拿大为149.49 tC,法国为73.56 tC;而中国从1900年到2005年,其人均累计排放量为24.14 tC,只相当美国或英国1900-1907年这8年的人均累计排放。

2、 1900-2005年全球人均累计排放为79.58 tC,一些代表性国家为:美国为467.88 tC、英国为303.13 tC、德国为271.32 tC、俄罗斯为164.00 tC、法国为161.85 tC、日本为115.10 tC、南非为159.26 tC、中国为24.14 tC、巴西为20.27 tC、印度10.79 tC。

3、以一 个国家1900-2050年应得排放配额总量计算,大部分发达国家早已用完,如美国1900-2050年的应得排放配额总共为31.63 GtC(单位为十亿吨碳),而它1900-1963年的排放即已达此值。同样,英国在1957年、德国在1969年、加拿大在1980年、澳大利亚在 1990年、法国在1999年已用完其1900-2050年排放总配额。

以人均累 计排放计算,美国在1936年、英国在1945年、德国在1963年、加拿大在1955年、澳大利亚在1977年、法国在1989年就已经达到足额排放 (1900-2050年人均累计排放空间为133.13 tC)。其它国家预期达到足额排放的时间分别是:日本在2013年前后,意大利在2040年前后,中国将在2047年前后,印度则会在2050年之后。


4、以每吨CO2价 值20美元计,仅G8国家中的美、英、德、法、俄、加6国逐年形成的排放赤字价值到2005年已大于5.5万亿美元,2006-2050年它们的预期排放 形成的赤字价值将达到6.3万亿美元,总的排放赤字价值将大于11.8万亿美元。因此,我国强调要发达国家拿出1%GDP做补偿的观点完全是有依据的。

5、即使 发达国家今后达到其大幅度减排目标(如到2020年,比2005年或1990年减20%,到2050年减80%),它们在2006-2050年还将是高人 均累计排放,如美国为148.83 tC、G8国家平均为83.69 tC,仍将大大高于2006-2050年全球人均累计排放预期53.55 tC,也就是说,它们目前提出的大幅度减排目标,即使实现,也不表明它们将占据道德高地而压发展中国家减排。

6、以 2005年人均排放和1996-2005年人均排放增长率为出发点,假定中国到2035年达到人均排放高峰,并且人均年排放达到日本2005年的水 平:2.62 tC(2005年我们人均排放为1.15tC),进一步假定从2035年到2050年,中国的人均排放降到法国2005年的水平:1.69 tC。考虑人口增长率,中国2006-2050年的总排放量模拟值为126.97 GtC,超过应得配额17.06 GtC。此出超不算大,可以用生物圈固碳抵消,并且这个估计是留有余地的。因此,我国完全可以做到进退有据。

7、G8国家建议到2050年,全球CO2排 放量减少50%,G8国家则减少80%。如此方案通过,则G8国家1990-2050年的累计排放将为127.32 GtC,以2005年人口计,人均累计排放将为146.94 tC,而“其它国家”1990-2050年的累计排放将为204.70 GtC,人均累计排放将为36.24 tC,人均差别将高达4倍。如果计算1900-1989年间的排放,二者差别将更大。可见,G8国家的这个建议如作为国际公约生效,那将成为历史上罕见的 不平等条约。

最后,课 题组还围绕谈判议题是减排还是配额、470ppmv的目标浓度、排放配额的分配、人均累计排放量的计算、已超额排放国家如何率先行动、不同类型国家的如何 承诺、征收碳关税是否合理、是否应该设立“气候移民”议题、固碳是否应该用于冲抵排放等9个与国际谈判相关的问题提出了自己的看法。课题组认为,控制温室 气体排放的国际协调行动将会对整个人类的价值取向产生深远的影响。比如, 许多西方国家对诸如中国所采取的控制人口出生率政策颇多诟病, 但他们应该很快就能明白:在应对气候变化的话语系统下,控制人口增长就成为必然的逻辑指归;又比如,一些西方国家引为自豪的生活方式,如果以控制大气温室 气体浓度的标准来评价,就可得出这样的结论:正是他们消费主义的生活方式导致了他们国家人均高排放的出现,而这种生活方式既不应被任何发展中国家所仿效, 也不应被他们本身所坚持. 至于本文一再强调的建立控制大气CO2浓度的国际责任体系,远不止排放配额分配这一件事,它还涉及到国际关系处理中的很多方面,这些都是今后需要予以深入研究的。